Ecosystem health is the capacity to maintain biological and social organization on one hand and the ability to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals on the other hand. Healthy ecosystems support human communities, economic opportunities and environmental integrity. Healthy ecosystems are characterized by productivity, organization and resilience in terms of biophysical functions and social aspects and are an indicator of human wellbeing. They present a desired end of ecosystem management oriented towards preserving the functions of ecosystems even though the system would considerably be altered by human activity. However, most of the country’s water towers have experienced deteriorating health conditions mostly due to human activities and climate change, leading to reduced provision of ecosystems goods and services. Regaining ecosystem health and resilience of water towers call for immediate action.

Water towers ecosystems remain the major source of energy for the rural communities further aggravating carbon dioxide emission levels. To ensure sustainable ecosystems, it is important to carry out continuous assessment, monitoring and reporting. Assessment is extended to include economic valuation of water towers. This generates important information such as stocks and flows of ecosystem goods and services and their linkage to the economy.